Богословље

Положај човека у Оригеновој теологији

Марко Вилотић

Богословље: 1 (2009) 31-55

УДК: 27-9"02", ORI:27-18

Цео текст (.PDF)


Abstract: Иако најзначајнији представник Отаца 3. века чији значај и утицај на даљи развој теологије Цркве је тешко могуће преценити, Ориген остаје готово потпуно занемарен и неистражен на српској теолошкој сцени. Овај рад представља покушај да се донекле осветли један интересантан аспект његове мисли, учење о човеку. Након осврта на човеков ‘састав’, више пажње посвећено је положају који човек има унутар створеног света. Аутор износи негативне импликације које, макар на први поглед, по схватање човека имају поједине хипотезе из Почела, попут оне о преегзистенцији духова. Затим, на примеру проф. Едвардса, презентује могућност другачије интерпретације учења из Почела, поредећи ова учења са ставовима о човеку из других Оригенових дела. Након расправе о смислу човековог постојања, износи се и пут којим се, према Оригену, стиже до остварења овог смисла, кроз лични подвиг и чланство у Цркви, уз кратак осврт на његову есхатологију. На крају, не доносећи коначан суд, аутор нуди три могућа начина на који је могуће приступити проблему различитости у приказаним Оригеновим ставовима у човеку, истичући комлексност и вишеслојност његове мисли, нудећи притом извесне смернице које могу бити од користи приликом проучавања и других аспеката мисли овог великог учитеља.


Summary: Origen is the most important representative of the third century Fathers. Hovvever, at our local theological scene, he has been undeservedly neglected. This study aims to cast some light on his anthropology. The author first gives a short description of Origen’s understanding of man’s structure. Thus it is shown that, for Origen, corporeality as such is not something bad or a simple consequence of the fall. As for soul and spirit, their complicated and to some extent blurred mutual relation is indicated. Origen’s understanding of all 3 man’s ‘parts’ was also used to show his critical relation towards Greek philosophy. Nevertheless, the central part of this study deals not with these ‘parts’, but with the specific role and place that man has within the creation, and with the goal of his existence. The author introduces a famous Origen’s teaching from On First Principles, on the preexistence of spirits, and explains why this teaching could be very harmful, when it comes to the understanding of the status that man as a being has. Namely, it appears evident that Origen’s opinion on this question differs greatly from other Church fathers’. Not only is not man the king of the creation, but he was not supposed to exist at all, and is just one of the levels to which spirits originally fell. However, a different, orthodox, interpretation of this Origen’s teaching is also possible, which was shown by the example of professor Edwards. There are, as well, many thoughts on man in other Origen’s writings, which are completely in line with the rest of the Fathers. As for the goal of our existence (which for Origen is theosis and union with God), it can be reached through great personal effort and membership in Church. The goal of our asceticism, according to Origen, is not to attain certain individual perfection, but to become a member of the body of Christ. Therefore, some usual prejudices on his ascetics and ecclesiology need to be revised. Furthermore, the author presents a few crucial comments on Origen’s eschatology, for the eschaton is the ‘space’ of the final fulfillment of the history of salvation. Finally, the author does not draw апу definite conclusion on the Origen’s understanding of man, but proposes 3 possible approaches to the problem of certain diversity within his anthropological teaching. These approaches indicate the great complexity of Origen’s thought, which we must always bear in mind, no matter which aspect of his theology we explore. Othenvise, if we simply cling to a superficial and incomplete understanding of Origen, or (even worse) simply ignore him – that would deprive us of a great spiritual treasure.