Митраизам и ранохришћанска (црквена) архитектура у Далмацији

Бранислав Кончаревић

УДК: 27-523.4

Богословље 1 (2016) 194–230

Branislav Končarević
Mithraism and the Early Christian (Church) Architecture in Dalmatia

Сажетак: Радом се настоји кроз очигледне сличности, између митраизма и хришћанства најприје указати на континуитет вјере, а потом на утицај предхришћанске сакралне архитектуре на ранохришћанско градитељство. Да би се што јасније истакле слич ности, у раду је дат један савремен приступ митраизму а потом конкретно изложен његов утицај на ранохришћанску архитектуру. Митраизам је познат као античка римска религијска мистерија. Његово поријекло у Ромејском царству научници ни до данас нису разјаснили. О том питању научници су подијељени. Једни сматрају да је то Персијско-индијско божанство, које је посредно или непосредно доспијело у Рим. Други сматрају да је то аутохтоно римско божанство. У приложеном раду није се улазило у ту расправу, нити се опредјељивало за или против било које претпоставке. Само су поменута и евидентирана разна мишљења у вези поријекла и настанка и укратко изнијето митраистичко учење да би се лакше могао показати његов утицај на ранохришћанску архитектуру, односно, истакнуте су самододирне тачке између митраизма и хришћанства, шта се одразило и на саму ранохришћанску архитектуру. Током времена, теолошким узрастањем, хришћанство је створило своје архитектонске узоре храмова, тако да је хришћанска сакрална архитектура дубоко повезана са теолошким мишљењем, које извире из живе вјере. Нажалост, због ограниченог обима рада, овде нису предочене скице црквица о којима се говори, што би свакако употпунило доказе и илустрације. Не само због овог недостатка, него и због генералног приступа теми, овај рад је више подстицај за размишљање о предоченом наслову, него готов одговор на постављену тему.
Кључне ријечи: Митра, хришћанство, митреј, ранохришћанско градитељство, византијска умјетност, Sol и Sol invictus, Римско царство, Далматинске црквице, свод, купола, пећина, стијена

Mithraism and the Early Christian (Church) Architecture in Dalmatia
Summary: In the seventies of the last century there has been a growing interest in Mithraism. There have been some significant works, but until now scientists remained divided regarding Mithras cult. Some believe that it Persian Indian deity, that is directly or indirectly advance to Rome. Others believe that it is native Roman deity. In added work has not entered into this discussion, nor did we opted for or against any. In this paper we have not so much by the only Mithraism, interested us more concrete facts from which we can draw a certificate of Mithraism impact on early midage church architecture. Only designated and recorded various opinions regarding the origin and the origin and briefly state Mithraism learning, for the reason that is easy to demonstrate his influence on early Christian architecture. That is, we highlighted the linkages between Mithraism and Christianity, what is reflected in the very early Christian architecture. The fact of contact Mithraism and Christianity are many. So this problem requires a deeper and more detailed study. On the basis of the present, we have concluded that the outlying Roman provinces, but Theodosius’ edict, a great number of pagan shrines easily adapted to Christian temples. Relatively it went on easily and quickly because what ordinary pagan world has seen a big difference in faith and worship, who was worshiped until recently, even more so, they are a natural extension of the same faith. All what happened in larger centers was reflected on the Dalmatia. So, the development of Christian architectural thinking in larger centers, reflected in Dalmatia. But themselves Dalmatians, and have brought their own architectural experience and new architecture. Engaging in deeper analysis of topics we have come to the conclusion that Dalmatia Christianity medieval architecture can be divided into four periods, namely: early Christian 4 and 5 or 6 century, where the apparent late antiquity, mainly Mithraic influence, where under Mithraism mean sublimated the whole late-Roman religion. The 7 ,8 and 9 century am notable early Byzantine influence. The ninth, tenth and eleventh century might be called a typical Dalmatia-Raska style of architecture, which is apparent return to early Christian architecture, and mature domestic approach. This period presents something bigger church than what they were in the early Christian period, they are no vaulted dome, rectangular with, usually half circle apse, and as a special novelty introduced with a simple bell towers. Such architectural concept was sought to add, under new Byzantine (the time of Macedonians) solutions, the cupola. This solution is not just literally got off the ground at the beginning of the Dalmatia -Raska area, only during the Nemanjiæ and later they will get their visible role. After a short presentation on Mithraic learning, we presented what he looks like a shrine and found a parallel with early Christian churches, which has dozens of Dalmatian. Some were semi-destroyed, some discovered and excavated, and some are waiting to be discovered. Interestingly, in some and now serves (St. Martin Split), although a large number of those
who deliberately destroyed the trail. We tried to give a general typology, what is very difficult, because each individual to this church requires access. However, we noticed four basic types. Not so much construction, so many places to build the church. The elements that are represented in these four types, we could be reduced to: confidentiality places, caves, stone role and the role of water. And finally, we refer to the early Christian church to which the obvious direct influence of Mithraism in early Christian architecture. See that small Dalmatian churches, reared on Mithraeums, have maintained the same form Mithraeums: small size, thick walls, vaulted barrel, with the whole altar furniture made of stone, as if carved from a single stone part, we think, what they and was the target.